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Fouladi, Rachel

Rachel Tanya Fouladi, Ph.D.

Rachel Fouladi (Ph.D., 1996; Psychology: Quantitative Methods/Psychometrics, University of British Columbia, Canada) and Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada. Prior to joining SFU, she was faculty at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Dept. of Behavioral Sciences) and The University of Texas at Austin (Dept. of Educational Psychology), collaborated on multiple multi-year U.S. federal grants, and consulted with the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation and the Texas Department of Human Services. Dedicated to the advancement of research practice and methods, she has developed a broad research program (with over 70 publications and over 150 conference presentations) in the development and study of quantitative methods, factors influencing individuals' responses to questionnaires, with applied work in health/well-being measurement and modeling.

Within the Department of Psychology at SFU, she is current Area Coordinator of History, Quantitative, and Theoretical Psychology; in her former institutions, service included comparable leadership roles for the Section of Behavioral Statistics (UT-MDACC) and the Quantitative Methods Area (UT-Austin).  Recipient of Canadian federal research funding, she has also served on Canadian national grant adjudication panels. Elected member of the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology since 2007, she has served on the Editorial Advisory Committee the society’s journal, Multivariate Behavioral Research (2008-2011), and on editorial boards or as reviewer of key journals in the field. She is active in her service to major psychological associations. She is a member of the Council of Representatives of the Western Psychological Association. Service to APA Division 5 includes contributions to the Division 5 Executive Committee through work on the APA Convention Program Committee (member 2005-2008, co-chair 2007), and most recently, as Division Financial Officer (2014-2017). Starting in 2018, she begins service as an elected Representative of Division 5 to the APA Council of Representatives.




B.A.,University of British Columbia, 1989 Psychology
M.A., University of British Columbia, 1991 Psychology: Quantitative Methods, Psychometrics
Ph.D, University of British Columbia, 1996 Psychology: Quantitative Methods, Psychometrics


I am a faculty member in the History, Quantitative, and Theoretical Psychology area of the Dept of Psychology at SFU. This area encompasses quantitative methods of measurement and statistics as applied to the behavioral sciences. My interests include health psychology and issues of pedagogy and use of elementary and multivariate statistical procedures under a variety of distributional conditions, assumption violations, and reduced sample sizes commonly encountered in health, behavioral, and social sciences.  I conduct specific measurement research in the areas critical to a overall well-being and quality of life (including attachment, and emotional and physical function). A current research project centers on the examination of response styles in self-administered electronic and paper-and-pencil health questionnaires. My quantitative research focus is on multivariate statistical procedures including covaraince and correlation structure analysis, structural equation modeling, multi-level modeling. I have worked on projects concerning: a) the application of bootstrap methodology to covariance and correlation structure analysis techniques, b) the performance of multivariate tests on means, c) multi-level modeling, d) pedagogy of statistics,  e) theory and application of quality evaluation, control, and improvement methodology.

I work with students out my Measurement and Modelling Lab: http://members.psyc.sfu.ca/labs/mml

Mentoring students in research practice is a fundamental part of my pedagogy. To this end I include students/mentees in varied roles on papers/posters presented at conferences. In this way, students learn both the practice of scientific method and and the culture of science. Select papers and poster presentations at conferences with students/mentees * include:

  1. *Wallis, P., & Fouladi, R.T. Assessing participant preference of electronic questionnaire format. Poster presentation. WPA Annual Convention. May 2007. Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  2. *Wallis, P., *Robson, K., *Hooey, M., & Fouladi, R.T. The impact of questionnaire presentation format on information processing of item content and item responses. Poster presentation. NOWCAM. May 2007. Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  3. *Wallis, P., *Nielsen, H., *Friesen, M., & Fouladi, R.T. A study of response shifts across repeated assessments of previous week's mood in a short timeframe. Poster presentation. NOWCAM. May 2007. Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  4. Fouladi, R.T. Graduate school applications and experience: Department of Psychology Graduate Programs at Simon Fraser University. Graduate Program Symposium. National Undergraduate Psychology Student Research Conference. April 2008. Richmond, BC, Canada. (Invited Presenter)
  5. Fouladi, R.T. Single and multiple group correlation Analysis -- Recent work. Paper presentation. Annual Meeting of the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology. October 2008. Montreal, QC, Canada.
  6. *Wallis, P., & Fouladi, R.T. Profilingcollege students who skip open-ended items in questionnaires with varied item formats. Paper presentation. AERA Conference. April 2012. Vancouver, BC, Canada. 
  7. *Wallis, P., & Fouladi, R.T. Test-Retest effects on items of a mesaure of depressive symptomology. Paper Presentation. WPA Annual Convention. April 2014. Portland, Oregon.
  8. Fouladi, R.T., & *Malange, R. Claims and tests of differences between correlations in several personality and social psychology journals.  Poster presentation. SPSP Annual Meeting. February 2014. Austin, Texas.
  9. *Georgeson, A.R., *Metta, A., & Fouladi, R.T. Item features and response shift on a depressive symptomology instrument.  Poster presentation.  WPA Annual Convention. April 2015. Las Vegas, Nevada. 
  10. *Georgeson, A.R., *Metta, A., & Fouladi, R.T. Instructional language fluency and self-efficacy in college.  Paper Presentation. International Conference on Health-Promoting Universities.  June 2015.  Kelowna, BC, Canada.
  11. *Georgeson, A.R., *Metta, A., & Fouladi, R.T. English Fluency and responses to a depressive symptomology instrument. Poster Presentation. CPA Annual Convention. June 2015. Ottawa, ON, Canada. 
  12. Fouladi, R.T.,*Georgeson, A.R., *Metta, A. Item Concreteness and response shift on a depressive symptomology instrument. Poster Presentation. APA Annual Convention. August 2015. Toronto, ON, Canada.
  13. Fouladi, R.T.,*Georgeson, A.R., & *Metta, A. The effect of English fluency on responses to a depressive symptomology instrument.  Poster Presentation. APA Annual Convention. August 2015. Toronto, ON, Canada.
  14. Fouladi, R.T., & *Georgeson, A.R. (2016, March - Invited). Explanatory item response modeling frameworks: probing the roles of language. American Psychological Association Division 5 Symposium on Psychological Methods, Victoria, BC. (Invited speaker – invited by APA Division 5 President)
  15. Fouladi, R.T., *Huerta, S. ,*Georgeson, A.R, & *Kettner, V. (2016, July). Small sample and N-1 methodologies: Their place or absence in psychology research curriculum and its implications. Roundtable. Canadian Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Victoria, BC.
  16. *Georgeson, A.R., & Fouladi, R.T.  (2016, July). Distributional characteristics of quasi-count CES-D items: Poisson or normal. Poster presentation. Canadian Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Victoria, BC.
  17. Fouladi, R.T., *Georgeson, A.R. (2016, August). Alternative coding and analysis strategies probe who chooses which options for which types of items. Paper presentation at symposium. American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Denver, Colorado.
  18. Fouladi, R.T. & *Georgeson, A.R. (2016, October). A framework for linguistic analysis of item features in psychological self-report questionnaires. Paper presentation. Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology Annual Meeting, Richmond, Virginia
  19. Fouladi, R.T., *Georgeson, A.R., & *St. Arnaud, A. (2017, April). Linguistic features of items and responses to self-report questionnaires – Applications to college student well-being assessment. Paper presentation. Western Psychological Association Annual Convention, Sacramento California.
  20. Fouladi, R.T., *Georgeson, A.R., *Buckshon, J., *Hystad, J., *Khaw, A., & *St. Arnaud, A. (2017, April). Item response shifts on self-reported depressive symptoms – A mixed methods study of response process. Paper presentation. Western Psychological Association Annual Convention, Sacramento California
  21. *Fikkert, H., Fouladi, R.T., et al. (under review for April 2018). The influence of negative and positive schema on the CES-D think-aloud responses. Poster presentation. Western Psychological Association Annual Convention, Portland Oregon.
  22. *Hindy, J., Fouladi, R.T., et al., (under review for April 2018). The interpretation of "effort" when measuring depressive symptomology in college students. Poster presentation. Western Psychological Association Annual Convention, Portland Oregon.
  23. *Hystad, J., Fouladi, R.T., et al., (under review for April 2018). Response shifts: The Post-Concussion Symptom Severyity Scale versus overlapping items on the CES-D and PANAS. Poster presentation. Western Psychological Association Annual Convention, Portland Oregon.
  24. *Khaw, A., Fouladi, R.T., et al., (under review for April 2018). The role of questionnaire item semantic features in judgments of symptom severity and item responses. Poster presentation. Western Psychological Association Annual Convention, Portland Oregon.
  25. *Ou Yang, Z.Y., *Tang, C., Fouladi, R.T., et al., (under review for April 2018). Use of verbal and numeric response option labels on English and Mandarin Forms of a depressive symptoms questiontionnaire. Poster presentation. Western Psychological Association Annual Convention, Portland Oregon. 


Enquiries from potential graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, collaborators, or undergraduate students (who wish to work in my lab) are welcome. Feel free to e-mail me at (rfouladi @ sfu . ca)



  • R2. Version 1.1. A DOS program for confidence interval estimation, power calculation, and sample size estimation for the squared multiple correlation. For a published program description, interested parties are referred to Steiger and Fouladi (1992).
  • MATLAB (Version Beta) implememtation of Steiger's Mathematica Module WBCorr (see www.statpower.net for information on Steiger's WBCorr); WBCorr permits omnibus (and followup) within/between correlation matrix assessment of correlation pattern models using normal theory and asymptotically distribution free theory procedures described in (Steiger, J.H. (2003/4). Comparing correlations. In A. Maydeu-Olivares & J.J. MdcArdle (Eds.) Psychometrics. A festschrift to Roderick P. McDonald. Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.). Interested parties in Fouladi's MATLAB implementation of Steiger's WBCorr are directed to contact R.T. Fouladi via email. 
  • MMLR2 (2017) and MMLWBCORR (2017) user-friendly web-based interfaces to implement and extend some of the procedures in R2 (Steiger & Fouladi, 1992), WBCORR (Steiger, 2004), Yuan, Lambert, and Fouladi (2004). See http://members.psyc.sfu.ca/labs/mml/research


* Denotes current/former mentee

A. SELECT Books and Manuals

Fouladi, R.T. (1999). A quality services oversight technical assistance manual: A guide to the methodological foundations of TDMHMR QSO/MDS processes. Austin, TX: Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation.

B. SELECT Chapters

  1. Steiger, J.H., & Fouladi, R.T. (1997). Noncentrality interval estimation and the evaluation of statistical models. In L. Harlow, S. Mulaik, & J.H. Steiger (Eds.) What if there were no significance tests. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  2. Fouladi, R.T., & Steiger, J.H. (1999). Tests of identity correlation structure. In R.H. Hoyle (Ed.) Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
  3. Fouladi, R.T. (2014). Mode Effects. In: Michalos AC (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, pp 4099-4101.
    (Invited/Editor Selection)

C. SELECT Articles

  1. Steiger, JH, Fouladi, RT. R2: A computer program for interval estimation, power calculation, and hypothesis testing for the squared multiple correlation. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 24: 581-582, 1992.
  2. Fouladi, RT, Steiger, JH. Tests of multivariate independence: A critical analysis of "A Monte Carlo study of testing the significance of correlation matrices": by Silver and Dunlap. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53: 927-932, 1993.
  3. Fouladi, RT. Performance of modified test statistics in covariance and correlation structure analysis under conditions of multivariate non-normality. Structural Equation Modeling, 7, 356-410, 2000.
  4. *Shieh, YY, Fouladi, RT, Pullum, TW. The effect of error term nonnormality on multilevel model parameter estimates and standard errors. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoints, 27(1): 12-37, 2001.
  5. Fouladi, RT, McCarthy, CJ, *Moller, NP. Paper-and-pencil or online? Evaluating mode effects on measures of emotional functioning and attachment. Assessment, 9: 204-215, 2002.
  6. Fouladi, RT, *Yockey, RD. Type I error control of two-group multivariate tests on means under conditions of heterogeneous correlation structure and varied multivariate distributions. Communications In Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 31(3): 375-400, 2002.
  7. *Whittaker, NJ, Fouladi, RT, *Williams, NJ. Determining predictor importance in multiple regression under multicollinearity and nonnormality conditions. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 1(2):354-366, 2002.
  8. *Shieh, Y-Y, & Fouladi, RT. The effect of multi-collinearity on multilevel modeling parameter estimates and standard errors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(6), 951-985, 2003.
  9. Fouladi, RT, *Shieh, Y-Y. A comparison of two general approaches to mixed model longitudinal analyses under small sample size conditions. Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 33(3), 807-824, 2004.
  10. Yuan, KH, Lambert, PL, Fouladi, RT. Mardia's multivariate kurtosis with missing data. Multivariate and Behavioral Research, 39(3), 413-437, 2004.
  11. Fouladi, R.T., Rew, L., & Horner, S. (2006). Comparing three modes of measuring stress, coping, and humor in school-age children. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 14(2), 81-101.
  12. Fouladi, R.T., *Moller, N.P., & McCarthy, C.J. (2006). Examination of the internal consistency and construct validity of scores on the Parental Attachment Scale: Preliminary psychometric results from three college student samples. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 39(1–2), 2–30.
  13. Horner, S.D., Kieckhefer, G.M., & Fouladi, R.T. (2006). Measuring asthma severity: Instrument refinement. Journal of Asthma, 43(7), 533-538.
  14. McCarthy, C.J., Fouladi, R.T., *Juncker, B., & Matheny, K.B. (2006). Psychological resources as stress buffers: Their relationship to college students’ anxiety and depression. Journal of College Counseling, 9, 99-110.
  15. *Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M., Lee, C., & Fouladi, R.T. (2007). Introductory statistics, college students attitudes and knowledge – A qualitative analysis of technology-based instruction. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 38(1), 65–83. Lix, LM, Fouladi, RT. Robust step-down tests for multivariate independent group designs. The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 60(pt2), 245-XXX, 2007.
  16. *Swartz, R.J., de Moor, C., Cook, K., Fouladi, R.T., Basen-Engquist, K., Eng, C., & Carmack Taylor, C. (2007). Mode effects for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale:  Personal digital assistant vs. Paper and pencil. Quality of Life Research, 16(5), 803–818.
  17. Fouladi, RT, Steiger, JH. The Fisher transform of the Pearson product moment correlation: Cumulants, moments, and applications. Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation,  37(5), 928 - 944, 2008.
  18. *Kalmet, N, Fouladi, RT. A comparison of Physical Self-Perception Profile Questionnaire Formats: Structured response and ordered response scale formats. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise, 12(2), 88-112, 2008.
  19. Thornton, A.E., Cox, D., Whitfield, K., & Fouladi, R.T. (2008). Cumulative concussion exposure in rugby players: Neurocognitive and symptomatic outcomes. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(4), 298-409.
  20. Rew, L, Horner, S, Fouladi, RT. Factors associated with health behaviors in middle childhood. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 25(3), 157-166, 2010.
  21. Fouladi, R.T. (2014). Mode Effects. In: Michalos AC (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, pp 4099-4101
  22. Fouladi, R.T.,  *Wallis, P. College Self-Efficacy Subscales: Contrasting associations with background, linguistic, and other psychological variates. Procedia -- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 5-16, 2014.

D. SELECT Projects

A. Grant (Fouladi)
Psychology Department Research Grant

The impact of response options on response process -- Retrocspecting about quantity and/or quality: A qualitiative examination


B. Grant (Fouladi)
Psychology Department Research Grant

Respondent perception of CES-D items as a function of different linguistic backgrounds: A qualitative approach.  


C. Grant (Fouladi)                                                                          
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, 410-2006-0397(7501)

Response styles in self-administered electonic and paper-and-pencil health questionnaires

The goal of this research program is to contribute to the current understanding of response distortions in self-administered measures of mental health.


D. Grant (Fouladi)                                                                          
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, RGPIN293265

Covariance structure analysis and model selection under diverse distributional, sample, and study conditions

The goal of this project is to examine the performance of correlation and covariance structure analysis and selection procedures and to determine their impact in subsequent multivariate analyses.




SFU Departmentof Psychology

Measurement and Modeling Lab : http://members.psyc.sfu.ca/labs/mml  

RCB 5116